Water Leakage – Cracked Pipe, The Most Common Cause Of Flooding.
Water leaks can have various causes – a broken pipe, unsealed connections in a well-made installation, a leaking washing machine or dishwasher are events that are difficult to prevent. Once it comes to them, speed counts … A cracked pipe in the wall is no problem but in most cases it needs repair.
The most common are steel pipes supplying hot water. Higher temperatures accelerate corrosive chemical reactions. Other causes of cracks are the use of various fittings during assembly, e.g. galvanized pipe and fitting made of black steel. In such cases, corrosion and cracking of the black fitting most often occurs.
Other causes of cracks, e.g. plastic pipes, are material defects in fittings, microcracks in PP welded fittings, which give the effect of spraying with a jet of hair thickness – very weak microscopic unsealing, but very troublesome, sometimes difficult to locate the leak.
WATER LEAK – THE FIRST HYDRAULIC FAILURE RESPONSE.
In the event of a fault, the water supply should be shut off as soon as possible to prevent further damage. Everyone in the family should know the location of the valves cutting off the water supply to individual devices or rooms. They are usually located under the device: toilets, taps, kitchen sinks or behind it: washing machines, dishwashers, in a place where the water supply pipe is connected to the device.
If the malfunction does not apply to one device, or if there is no separate valve next to it, the water in the whole apartment should be cut off using the main valve located at the main water supply pipe. To close the valve, turn the knob clockwise to the Z position. In the case of ball valves with a longer handle or the so-called the handle should be positioned across the valve line. If tools such as an adjustable wrench are needed for tightening, keep the pliers close to the valve so that you do not have to look for it in the event of a breakdown.
If the pipe is cracked or leaky: immediately turn off the water, try to repair it yourself. Call a free plumber if water is still leaking. From time to time, especially in the event of frost, check the water meter. There are cases when you do not see a water leak, because it can flow under the floor and the leak goes straight to the ground – in this case, with all the taps turned off at home, you can see that the meter is ‘going’ all the time. In this case, call a proven plumber.
To avoid freezing of the meter, make sure that it is properly thermally insulated with cover and in the design phase, make sure that the meter is not in an unheated room. If the leaking tap cannot be turned off, cut off the water at the sink, or if necessary, close the main valve.
CAUSES OF THE MOST COMMON HYDRAULIC FAILURES ARE:
• Cracked hose supplying hot or cold water
• Cracked metal, plastic or copper pipe
• Water system clogged (sediment stone)
• Clogged plumbing, toilet, paddling pool, bathtub, wash basin
• Leaking leaky faucet
• Valve defective
• Drilled water pipe or heating pipe
• Clogged electric grinders for W / C
Installations made of steel pipes resistant to high temperature, show good thermal and electrical conductivity. Well made can be useful for decades. If the water they contain has beneficial properties – it does not have a corrosive effect – they can then be used in plumbing installations.
Practice shows, however, that the water quality is not adequate, which causes corrosion and overgrowing of pipes with stone and rust. This corrosion is caused by carbon dioxide, oxygen and mineral salts contained in water, whose pH is slightly acidic, i.e. less than 7. Gases dissolved in water dissolve the zinc coating of the pipe, and then react with steel, which leads to the formation of material losses eventually leading to pipe wall cracks. In addition, calcium and magnesium compounds combine with corrosion products and settle on the inner walls of the pipes in the form of stone, reducing the cross-section of the pipe. This increases the hydraulic resistance, which reduces the water pressure. Hot water pipes are particularly vulnerable to this phenomenon, because under the influence of temperature chemical reactions in pipes occur faster. In central heating installations, due to the presence of gases, it is not recommended to drain the water from the system many times, as each subsequent filling provides a new portion of the salt of reactive gases and minerals that can contribute to the corrosion of pipes.
To make installations from steel pipes, straight pipe sections that can be threaded and ready, threaded fittings are used, and the joints are sealed with sealant – hemp fibers and paste. Installation of this material is time-consuming, however, its proper implementation and subsequent operation ensures comfort for years. In installations of this type, subsequent leaks may result in minor leaks from the threaded connections, often self-sealing. This is possible thanks to the properties of tow, which collect stony water during a small leak, create a stone cork on its surface.
INSTALLATIONS FROM COPPER TUBES
The use of copper pipes guarantees the high quality and durability of all types of installations, especially central heating. They are practically corrosion resistant. Some still-running installations made of copper can still be found from pre-war times. Due to the fact that copper is not oxidized or corroded, copper installations guarantee durability and hygiene – copper has anti-inflammatory, bactericidal and fungicidal properties.
Copper durability extends for generations. Copper installations can easily be dismantled, transformed and installed elsewhere. Copper pipes have a very smooth surface that minimizes water deposits.
PIPES MADE OF POLYPROPYLENE (PP)
Polypropylene is distinguished by good temperature resistance. The high rigidity of the material makes it possible to lay pipes in the building in a conventional way (verticals, twigs, approaches). The pipes are connected by welding at a temperature of 240 to 270 ° C. They can be used for the installation of cold and hot water as well as for central heating (pipes with aluminum insert, so-called stability). Plastic installations have the longest service life. Due to their flexibility and durability, they are rarely subject to mechanical damage. They are resistant to impacts, tensile and abrasive forces, corrosion and encrustation with judgments. They are much lighter than steel or copper pipes, which makes them easier to assemble or transport.
Plastic installations suppress sound and do not transfer vibrations, they absorb hydraulic impacts. They are physiologically neutral and microbiologically resistant, they do not affect the taste, smell and color of water. Plastics are non-toxic, free of heavy metal ions. The high aesthetics of the installation made of the material in question is also an important element. Plumbing and central heating installations can be made in many ways. Unlike steel pipes, they don’t know building barriers. The functioning of the hydraulic system depends on almost all components installed in it. Heating installations consisting of many heat sources such as condensing gas boiler / heat pump, fireplace with a water jacket, solar panel are particularly sensitive. The heat sources used in this type of installation can to some extent interfere with harmonious work and understanding the mechanism of its operation will certainly avoid many problems.
Let’s imagine the situation: a gas furnace service technician is called to the failure of the condensing boiler. Focusing only on searching for the source of failure lying in the boiler itself turns out to be unfounded. If, before attempting to remove the gas boiler fault, the complexity of the installation was checked, it could turn out that the source of failure of the gas furnace lies in the way the entire installation is made. In the specific case, a combination of two heat sources was used: a low-temperature condensing boiler or a heat pump and a fireplace with a water jacket. It can even be said that one of the elements excludes the other because the boiler failure occurred at the beginning of the heating season. So what was its reason? The condensing boiler is a furnace operating in a lower temperature range, while a fireplace with a water jacket boldly exceeds the temperatures achieved by the condensing boiler. Excessive heating of the condensing boiler by the fireplace will cause the computer controlling the gas stove to interpret the situation as a fault condition and show the message: fault. Therefore, searching for a fault in the condensing boiler itself is a mistake. You can not look for the source of failure in heating devices without considering the construction and operation of the entire heating system.
Is it possible to combine such two heat sources in the installation? Certain condensing boilers due to the technical solutions used in them are suitable for cooperation with other heat sources, you only need to know which ones will work in a complex CO installation. The construction of the gas boiler itself requires specific installation solutions, which is why it is so important that the entire heating system is thought out and masterfully made.